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    您的位置:首頁 > 萬方期刊網 > 論文分類> 聚乙烯醇在建筑墻面應用的研究

    聚乙烯醇在建筑墻面應用的研究

    來源:萬方期刊網  時間:2018-04-13 16:50:08  點擊:

      中國交通建設第一公路工程局海外事業部 北京 100024

      摘要:本文論述聚乙烯醇,是由石油化工行業生產鏈中某一環節提取的一種材料,我們通過一定的配比研究,得到合適濃度的水溶液,再配合水泥等作為新型建筑墻面等用料,在建筑工程項目中常用來制造建筑用新型“膩子”,取代了原市場中成品刮墻膩子,從而用來提高墻面的光潔平滑度、粘結強度和防水性能,更重要的大量節約成本,起到物美價廉的良好效果,現在建筑領域廣泛應用。

      關鍵詞:聚乙烯醇;建筑應用;

      一、聚乙烯醇建筑方面特性簡述

      我們在項目工程上使用的聚乙烯醇外觀為白色絮狀粉末,是一種用途相當廣泛的水溶性高分子聚合物,性能介于塑料和橡膠之間。溶于水,水溫越高則溶解度越大,但幾乎不溶于有機溶劑,它可在80--90℃水中溶解。其水溶液有很好的粘接性和成膜性,且能耐油類、潤滑劑和烴類等大多數有機溶劑。

      二、在項目施工中的實際研究與應用

      聚乙烯醇可以在熱水中溶解,但由于聚合度、醇解度高低的不同,醇解方式等不同在溶解時間、溫度上有一定的差異,因此在使用不同品牌聚乙烯醇時,溶解方法和時間需要進行現場實驗室摸索配比實驗。

      聚合物水泥中的聚乙烯醇水溶液的配比,溶解方法和時間只有通過實驗室多次進行摸索與實驗,最終得到最適合的實際混合物水溶液。項目上實驗室研究的實際聚乙烯醇配比的方法與步驟如下:先準備好一個干凈的容器或大鐵盆,先根據預計的配比放入定量的水,再放入聚乙烯醇絮狀物放入水中溶解時,可邊攪拌邊將該品緩緩加入20℃左右的冷水中充分溶脹、分散和揮發性物資的逸出,如色澤能均勻擴散,說明已完全溶解。基本上以聚乙烯醇與水按1:4的比例配比,在水融合后加熱到80℃至90℃,一邊加熱一邊均勻攪動,攪動的速度一般為50圈 /分鐘,加熱時間一般為一個小時左右,這需要根據火候大小根據經驗來適當調整,最后,用干凈的蓋子蓋住容器,以防渣滓雜物等掉入容器,讓次聚合物一直冷卻到常溫。

      根據我們項目實驗室自身的研究聚乙烯醇水溶液與型號425的水泥的配合比來看,效果最好的質量配比為水泥:水:聚乙烯醇水溶液為1.2:1:4.8。這種配比的稠度和柔韌度都十分好,且瓦工工人在披刮上墻時,使起來得心應手,很容易粘結在墻面砂漿層面。

      三、這種配比的實際使用后顯著效果及優勢有:

      1.墻面平滑光潔水平,基本上技術水平好的瓦工師傅刮一次就能達標,個別的地方用尺靠檢驗不平時再補刮一次即可成型。這樣節省了一般瓦工多次刮墻面膩子的工時。

      2.節約了原先傳統工藝使用膩子的成本。目前市場上,墻面膩子有各式各樣,價格也較貴,而聚乙烯醇絮狀原材料也才幾塊錢一公斤,這種新工藝的每平米的綜合成本比市場上的成品膩子也便宜;不但如此,而使用了這個聚乙烯醇水溶液與水泥混合配比后,每一平方米所需耗用的量比一平方米所需的膩子的量要節省得多。因此,這對施工總成本的目標控制找到了新工藝的技術措施。

      3.節省了涂料或油漆的使用量。建筑室內墻面在使用聚乙烯醇水溶液后,在進行下道工序油漆工程或涂料工程中,節省了油漆或涂料的用量。在原工藝墻面刮膩子后進行的涂刷油漆,一般需要三至四遍,而且油漆或涂料會在頭兩遍的時候會在墻體膩子面層吸收很大一部分,油漆或涂料在被從表層至內吸收后,才從質感上感覺到油漆已經“著色”,這樣實際消耗的油漆或涂料使用量也較大。而新工藝中聚乙烯醇配比水泥刮墻面后,在使用油漆或涂料后,油漆很快能在墻面相容著色,并且不被大量的吸收至墻體砂漿層,這樣以來可以節省油漆或涂料的用量,從而達到節約成本的目的。

      4. 聚乙烯醇配比水泥的墻面具有更好的防水性與耐水性。聚乙烯醇為有機高分子物質,摻人建筑石膏漿體后,隨著水分子的消耗和蒸發,聚乙烯醇在建筑石膏制品中逐漸形成具有阻水和防水作用的不規則網膜,填充于砂漿晶體間的孔隙內,從而降低整個墻面砂漿層的孔隙率,同時這種聚乙烯醇本身就是一種有機分子材料,在配合水泥后,具有更好的防水性能,提高建筑制品表層的防水性能。

      5. 提高墻面混合物的粘結性。另外,它還能減少摩擦,從而增強了工作效能以及質量。它具有防止砂漿抹灰層的開裂脫落,增加附著強度和平滑性。項目工程中經常有墻體的裂縫、空鼓松動的水泥砂漿、凸凹不平的墻面及陰角陽角等,均可以使用聚乙烯醇與水泥的配比后作為新工藝披刮來維護。同時,這種配比混合物具有良好的穩定性,水溶液具有穩定性,保質期更長,抗細菌霉變性能強,而且不發酵。

      當然,這種聚乙烯醇與水泥混合物也有很多的缺陷地方,由于聚乙烯醇屬于石油化工的下游產品,本身就含有一些化學物質,變成水溶液后會散發出微微的有害氣味,它不但能污染工地環境,最主要的是會危害施工人員的身體健康,還會成為居室的污染源,一般在室內墻面上施工披刮后,室內通風兩月后,墻面的污染才慢慢消減完。

      另外,聚乙烯醇與水泥的配比混合物是含有有機物成分,其阻燃性能也不如膩子和水玻璃等無機膠黏劑,也不耐熱,這是其弱勢之處。

      四、聚乙烯醇的使用注意事項與保存措施。

      在正式使用聚乙烯醇前,一般先進行現場小面積試驗段,在確認達到預期使用效果和用量后再大面積使用;墻面砂漿層表面應堅固結實、無浮灰和油漬,若有如上情況,先需要清除掉;此聚乙烯醇混合物在熬制后丙貯存一段時間后,會出現局部輕微的分層,這屬正常現象,不影響施工的繼續使用,并且在使用前攪拌均勻后即可;若在使用過程中如濺到眼睛、口腔及皮膚上時,請用清水沖洗即可;這種混合物的施工溫度應在常溫,甚至常溫以上,但不能在寒冬地區或氣溫零度以下的冬季使用;另外,此聚乙烯醇混合物在使用時不得隨意加水使用,且不可與其它溶劑或酯類混合或與其他品牌的膠黏劑混合使用。

      聚乙烯醇的原料應存放于室溫常溫陰涼處、通風、避光和干燥的場所,擺放整齊,不能擠壓、傾斜和倒置。倉庫應當有良好的通風條件,應避免產生粉塵與氧化劑接觸,工作場所除了有良好的通風還要遠離火種、熱源、工作場所嚴禁吸煙。貯存期間出現沉淀屬正常現象,使用前攪拌均勻。產品無毒,且不易燃,貯存運輸可按非危險品辦理相關運輸手續。一般聚乙烯醇在標準狀態下保質期為十二個月,有個別局部包裝有稍微的沉淀現象時,在熱水中攪拌均勻后可正常使用。項目上負責熬制聚乙烯醇并配比水泥混合物時,應該佩戴勞保,比如過濾防塵口罩,佩戴化學安全防護眼鏡,工作人員要經過專業的培訓,能夠嚴格的遵守操作規范。

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