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    新課程下如何教會學生自主學習初探

    來源:萬方期刊網  時間:2018-04-16 10:21:40  點擊:

      山東省萊蕪市高莊街道辦事處中心中學 271100

      著名教育家陶行知先生曾經說過:“先生的責任不在教而在教學,在教學生學。”一個高明的教師不僅要向學生灌輸課本上的知識技能,而且要能夠培養學生懂得如何去學。在教學過程中,學生要真正學會自主學習,作為教師,就應做到“有所為,有所不為”。

      “有所為,有所不為”是孔子所說的一句哲理名言, “有所為”的意思是主動選擇,“有所不為”的意思是敢于放棄。對于教學而言,“有所為”,就是要充分發揮教師在教學過程中的主導作用,對學生做到因勢利導,因材施教;“有所不為”,則是在發揮教師主導作用的同時,大膽放手,讓學生充分參與到教學中來,發揮學生的主體作用,激活學生的思維,以達到提高學生素質的目的。當然,“有所不為”并不意味著教師對學生可以放任自流,聽之任之,從而推卸自己應有的責任。教師的“有所不為”是為了讓學生能夠真正“有所為”,能夠充分發揮他們的主觀能動性。

      一、新課程下,我們提倡學生自主學習

      自主學習就是讓學生自己主動學習,教師要關注學生的主體性、能動性和獨立性,這時,要求教師要“有所不為”。

      1.自主學習是主動學習,就是讓學生“我要學”

      一方面表現為學習興趣,學生有了學習興趣,學習活動對他來說就是一種享受、一種愉快的體驗。

      另一方面表現為學習責任,只有當學習和責任真正地從教師身上轉移到學生身上,學生自覺地擔負起學習責任時,學生的學習才是一種真正的自主學習,因此,教師要“有所不為”。

      2.自主學習是一種獨立學習

      如果說主動性表現為“我要學”,那么,獨立性則表現為“我能學”。除有特殊原因外,每個學生都有相當強的潛在的和顯在的獨立學習能力,不僅如此,每個學生同時都有一種獨立的要求,都有一種表現自己獨立學習能力的欲望。教學過程中教師要不斷培養學生獨立學習的能力,就要做到“有所不為”。

      3.自主學習是一種自我意識、自我監控的學習

      自主學習要求學生對為什么學習、學習什么、如何學習等問題有自覺的意識,這就要求教師要“有所為”,在一堂課的開始階段,就要出示具體細化的目標。于是,學生在學習活動之前,能夠確定學習目標、選擇學習方法、做好學習準備;在學習活動之中,能夠對自己的學習過程、學習狀態進行自我調節;在學習活動之后,能夠對自己的學習結果進行自我檢查、自我評價。

      二、既然自主學習在學生的學習過程中起著如此重要的作用,那么,在教學中,教師應怎樣做到“有所為,有所不為”?

      我認為應注意以下幾點:

      1.要準確把握教材和學生實際

      準確把握教材,包括對《課程標準》各項要求的深刻理解和對課本的框架、重點和難點的準確把握。準確把握學生實際,就要對學生的思想狀況、知識水平、能力高低等各方面有清楚的了解。領會了《課程標準》,才能做到以教材為綱,創造性地運用教材,升華教材,因材施教。在對教材和學生有了準確、深刻的認識之后,教師才能真正認識到在教學過程中,應該“為”什么、“不為”什么。

      2.要認識到“多導少講”是“有所為,有所不為”的中心意旨

      我們都知道,在教學中,老師們最容易出現的毛病就是滿堂灌。殊不知,正是這種不顧學生實際的長篇大論,使得學生對學習越發生厭。而真理一旦成為死板的教條,恐怕就不再那么“真”了。著名教育家葉圣陶先生就曾經提出,反對“教師以講解為務,以為學生鮮能自覽,必為講解始能明曉”,而主張教師“自始即不必多講”,而應“致力于導”,使學生“自求得之”。

      “多導少講”,就是要真正發揮教師的主導作用,做到“有所為”。教師在教學中應注重提示,注重點撥,引導學生自主地去發現問題,討論問題,解決問題。對教材中的敘述性的內容盡量少講,甚至不講,學生自己領會即可,若有疑問,爭取在小組內交流討論。“把知識揉碎了給學生撒下去”,不容易調動學生的積極主動性。(《中國當代教學流派》)

      “多導少講”,就是要求教師“有所不為”,以充分發揮學生在教學中的主體作用,給學生更廣闊的空間去質疑,去思考。認識到這一點,教師在教學中就應該對癥下藥,少給或不給學生現成的答案,而是引導、鼓勵學生去積極思考,去主動發現問題、分析問題、解決問題。如此“學而思,思而疑,疑而悟,悟常存”,知識才真正會在學生的頭腦中生根發芽。

      3.給學生自由發展的廣闊空間,是“有所為,有所不為”的真正目的所在

      在教學過程中,教師少一些“高談闊論”,學生多一些“高談闊論”,從而打開束縛學生思維的繩索,讓學生盡情展現他們的思想和才智,教師做個瀟灑的“主持人”。那種要求教師“手勤、眼勤、嘴勤、腿勤……”的做法,其實是以扼殺學生個性為代價的。表面看來,教師勤勤懇懇,學生也老老實實,而實際上,眾多的學生的才能智慧就在這“大好風光”中漸漸泯滅了。他們不再是能動的活生生的個體,而成了“辛勤園丁”呵護下的一株株小草。

      我們知道,教學的目的是讓學生得到全面發展,不能把學生當成了實驗品。教學過程不能只是教師鍛煉自己的一種途徑,更主要的是學生知識水平、思維能力、道德品質等素質的全面提高。我們不能以犧牲學生的發展為代價來換取教師素質的提高。把教堂交還給學生吧!讓課堂真正成為學生施展才華、發展自己的舞臺。教師的角色定位是導演,是主持人,而不是“保姆”,只有如此,教師才能自覺地去把握在課堂上的位置,不喧賓奪主,真正做到“有所為,有所不為”。

      教學有法,但教無定法。在教學過程中,我們必須遵循學生的認知規律,遵循服務于學生的指導原則,以提高學生的素質為宗旨,以發展學生的個性為己任。“為”己所應為,“不為”學生之應為,讓每一個學生都動起來,讓每一個學生在課堂上都有機會展示他們的個性風采。

      參考文獻

      [1]《走進新課程》.北京師范大學出版社。

      [2]《中學政治教學參考》.陜西師范大學雜志社。

      [3]《中國當代教育家》.作家出版社。

      [4]《中國當代教學流派》.萊蕪市萊城區教學研究室。

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