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    您的位置:首頁 > 萬方期刊網 > 論文分類> 國內網絡經濟發展概況分析

    國內網絡經濟發展概況分析

    來源:萬方期刊網  時間:2018-04-10 10:19:07  點擊:

      摘要:近年來,網絡經濟依托互聯網平臺表展出強大的發展潛力,電子商務、網絡游戲、網絡購物等等網絡新經濟正在悄無聲息的走進我們的生活,影響并改變著整個社會經濟發展的現狀和方向。本文從網絡經濟發展的現狀切入,對網絡經濟發展的基礎條件,發展現狀進行論述、并對互聯網經濟的進一步發展提出展望。

      關鍵詞:互聯網;網絡經濟;電子商務;網絡購物;虛擬經濟

      網絡經濟是指建立在由現代通訊網絡、電子極端及網絡所形成的信息網絡基礎之上的一切經濟活動。在網絡經濟中,信息的產生于應用占據中心地位。網絡經濟的主要產業是信息技術、信息服務、電子商務和高科技產業。與傳統的實體貨幣交形式所不同的是,以互聯網為媒介的新型交易方式正在走進每一個人的生活,互聯網新經濟發展下的新型消費模式正在影響著我們的生活。現今社會,人們在經濟生活中,不僅要從網絡上獲取大量經濟信息,依靠網絡信息進行經濟行為的預測和決策,而且許多交易行為直接在信息網絡上依托信息技術進行。

      一、網絡經濟的發展狀況

      20世紀90年代以來,中國的互聯網技術不斷普及。如今,互聯網的應用已經普及到社會生活的各個領域,生產、教育、通訊、經濟、政治等各個領域。互聯網經濟已經發展為一項新興的產業正在迸發著強勁的生命力。中國的互聯網經濟涉及的面較廣,主要有互聯網廣告、網絡生產、網絡交易、網絡游戲的開發與運用以及電子商務等等。

      (一)網絡廣告市場。網絡廣告是互聯網產業舉足輕重的一部分,與傳統廣告相比,網絡廣告具有很多方面的優勢。影響范圍廣,信息量傳遞數量大,時間持久等優越性注定了互聯網廣告在未來的時間里將會有更廣闊的發展空間。2010年,中國網絡廣告產業增速明顯,第一季度網絡廣告市場份額63.6億元、第二季度87億元、第三季度100.5億元、第四季度105.6億元,保持了相對穩健的增長態勢。2010年全年網絡廣告市場格局穩定。

      (二)網絡游戲市場。目前,中國的網絡游戲開發和運用市場已經得到了快速的發展,以網絡游戲為先導,其他眾多相關產業也得到了很好的發展。網絡游戲市場成為當下網絡交易的主要消費對象,眾多家網絡游戲公司如雨后春筍半涌現,其中以騰訊、網易為代表。網絡游戲市場發展呈現出不斷上升的態勢,隨著社會經濟的發展,技術水平的不斷提高,網絡游戲市場勢必能夠展現出更大規模的吸引力和創造力。

      (三)電子商務市場。電子商務依托互聯網新技術拜托了傳統商務形式中時間和空間的約束,從而大大提高了資金的周轉速度、也擴展了商務交易的范圍和空間。電子商務逐步擴大到世界各國的各個領域,大大減少了時間成本,提升了經濟效益。

      (四)網絡購物市場。2010年網絡購物所創造的成交額數目可觀,前三個季度網絡購物市場交易總額吻別為1005.6億元、1104億元、1262億元,同比增速分別為114%、96.1%、和84.5%,網絡購物的發展速度在穩步上升的同時也放低了發展的速度,以便于提升發展的質量。目前,互聯網購物平臺的產生和發展,是中國消費領域的一場革命,越來越多的人喜歡網絡購物,其方便快捷的優勢備受廣大消費者的青睞,但是網絡購物在發展的過程中也存在著一系列的問題,譬如網絡詐騙、相關的物流產業發展滯后、以及次品充斥市場等。但是互聯網購物作為一種新興的消費模式表現出了強大的生命力和影響力,在日后的發展中,網絡購物勢必會進一步查漏補缺,發展的越來越好。

      二、信息在網絡經濟中起到至關重要的作用。

      信息作為網絡經濟的重要載體在網絡經濟的發展過程中起著重要作用,主要體現在以下幾個方面,

      (一)信息對物品和貨幣的部分替代

      (1)對物品的部分替代①直接替代:芯片等全新的信息載體,使物資消耗大大減低,如磁卡代替了金屬鑰匙,磁盤代替紙張,芯片代替汽車的機械傳動裝置等。②間接替代:知識替代物質,無形替代有形,軟件替代硬件。買家和賣家在網上尋找自己的合作對象,大大減少了信息搜尋的成本;信息的及時、有效溝通,大大減少了庫存和倉儲費用。(2)對貨幣的部分替代。采用電子貨幣、電子銀行,部分替代紙幣和金屬貨幣的流通。信用貨幣進一步取代了紙質貨幣。

      (二)信息對物流和貨幣流的控制

      (1)對物流的主導作用。物流的配送費用降低;產品的生產、制造和營銷的一體化;物流運輸的中間環節大大減少;加強了企業之間的合作與協調,企業內部的相互溝通。(2)對貨幣流的主要作用。電子貨幣的產生發展,花旗銀行董事長曾說:“與貨幣相關的信息比貨幣本省更加重要。”隨著網絡經濟的普及,對個人的信用有了更高的要求,一個人的誠信度像貼在身上的標簽一樣,跟隨他一輩子。信息對物流和貨幣流的替代與控制,大大降低了生產成本,提高了經濟效率、生產力水平,降低了市場的交易成本。

      三、網絡經濟的虛擬性特征

      (一)虛擬性的特征

      有別于實際地理空間的虛擬空間或虛擬社會。虛擬性的網絡平臺可最大限度地發揮有限資源的創造力,使資源利用最大化。

      (二)虛擬性的意義

      虛擬空間超越了現實時間和現實空間的限制,使人們可以盡可能的獲得更多的信息,盡可能地找到更多的合作伙伴,這樣一來,虛擬空間實現的交易大大減少了對空間、資本、資源、倉儲和運輸的需要;實體性和虛擬性的結合,帶來了經濟全球化的大發展:跨國公司;擴大了人們的活動范圍和相互關系。

      四、網絡經濟的發展前景

      互聯網經濟在現實生活中造就了“足不出戶,貨物到家”的便捷條件,在快節奏生活水準的條件之下,節約時間可能是當代社會最受青睞之一。我國的網絡經濟發展還處于初級階段,普及面較為狹窄,相關配置也不是很完善,為了保障企業和消費者的合法權益,能夠讓網絡經濟真正造福社會,我們要不斷地增加互聯網信息資源的供應、打破信息壟斷、在制度上建立起適合本國國情的社會信用制度。不斷完善互聯網經濟的相關配套設施。使互聯網經濟能夠更快更好地為我們的社會發展造福。

      參考文獻

      [1]劉培剛,鄭雅琴.互聯網的經濟學分析.[M]華東理工大學出版社.

      [2]張靜敏,互聯網絡的經濟學分析.[M]中國金融出版社.

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