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    您的位置:首頁 > 萬方期刊網 > 論文分類> 兩部制電價用電客戶經濟運行方式的探討 周軍

    兩部制電價用電客戶經濟運行方式的探討 周軍

    來源:萬方期刊網  時間:2018-04-10 16:38:42  點擊:

      (國網江蘇省電力公司宿遷供電公司營銷部 江蘇宿遷 223800)

      摘要:國家發改委辦公廳于2016年6月印發《關于完善兩部制電價用戶基本電價執行方式的通知》以來,社會各界反應強烈,在大部分用電客戶表示歡迎支持的同時,也有部分用戶產生質疑。本文就如何理解兩部制電價的政策意義,如何選擇經濟運行方式進行了探討,提出通過確定基本原則、合理選擇基本電費計收方式、加強用電管理與監測等措施,促進國家政策有效落地、切實降低企業用電成本。

      關鍵詞:兩部制;電價;經濟;運行方式

      1 兩部制電價政策的沿革

      1.1 兩部制電價政策的發端

      為充分發揮電能的使用效率,實現電力資源的優化配置,國家主管部門優先通過經濟杠桿,促使電力使用者提高設備利用率,這也是國際上比較通行的做法,兩部制電價政策因此應運而生。“兩部制電價”最早由英國J•霍普金森(John Hopkinson)博士于1892年提出,而我國的兩部制電價最早可追溯到民國時代。1929年10月(民國18年),閘北水電公司與翔華電氣公司簽訂供用電合同,約定“最大負荷限額為600千瓦,基本電價為銀3.13兩/千瓦•月”,這就是我國兩部制電價的雛形。我國最早出臺的兩部制電價相關政策為《1965年電、熱價格》。1975年,《水利電力部關于頒發<電、熱價格>的通知》(水電財字(1975)67號),對兩部制電價計收范圍與標準進一步明確,通常稱為“七六電價”,也是當前我國電價政策的鼻祖。

      1.2 兩部制電價政策的變革

      隨著我國經濟社會持續發展,原有的電價政策在執行過程中遇到了諸多的新情況、新問題,國家電力工業部順應形勢,在“七六電價”基礎上,于1996年10月頒布了《供電營業規則》,對兩部制電價相關的暫停、減容業務及計算規則等進行了詳細規定。21世紀以來,我國進入健康快速發展新常態。為適應國民經濟調整結構,支持生產企業轉型升級,降低實體經濟運行成本,國家發改委辦公廳于2016年6月30日印發了《關于完善兩部制電價用戶基本電價執行方式的通知》(發改辦價格[2016]1583號),對兩部制電價政策進行了優化調整。

      2 兩部制電價新政策的優勢與難點

      2.1 兩部制電價新政策的優勢

      2.1.1 便于靈活選擇計費方式。用電客戶每三個月即可結合實際生產經營情況,選擇變更一次基本電價計費方式(原政策規定為滿一年才可變更),對于開工不足、季節性減產、短期訂單等生產波動較大的企業可以靈活選擇“按容量或按需量”方式計算基本電費。

      2.1.2 便于合理調整用電容量。對于用電變壓器容量虛高、而實際用電負荷較低的用電容量,可通過減容來減少裝接容量,與實際用電需求負荷匹配,此時選擇按容量計收基本電費,則可以減少電費支出(“按容量”計算基本電費的標準低于“按需量”計算的標準)。且減容后容量低于實施兩部制電價規定容量標準時則可執行單一制電價,不再計收基本電費。

      2.1.3 便于適時辦理減容暫停。用電客戶可以根據“減容期限不受時間限制”、無減容暫停次數限制等寬松政策,在設備檢修、計劃減產、企業長假期間適時辦理減容或暫停,從而實現降低電費成本。

      2.2兩部制電價新政策的難點

      據調研了解,部分訂單型生產企業因產品需求無規律、生產安排無計劃,同時也缺乏對用電負荷的精準監測與控制,無法提前對次月的最大用電負荷進行精確預測,難以合理地確定最大需量核定值,極易發生約定需量值與實際最大需量之間出現較大偏差,從而導致增加電費支出。

      3 適應兩部制電價新政策的經濟運行方式

      3.1 基本電價計費方式的確定原則

      基本電價計費方式可由用電客戶自主選擇“按容量”或“按需量”,而兩者的根據區別在于,“按容量”方式的基本電價低于“按需量”方式。以江蘇省為例,按容量方式的基本電價為30元/千伏安•月,按需量方式的基本電價為40元/千瓦•月。若要合理確定計費方式,首先需明確兩者之間的分界點。

      由此可見,當實際最大需量達到用電變壓器總容量的75%時,“按容量”和“按需量”這兩種方式的電費相當,這即為計費方式確定的分界點。當實際最大需量超過總容量的75%時,選擇“按容量”計費較為經濟,反之,低于75%時,選擇“按容量”計費較為經濟。

      3.2 按容量計費的經濟運行方式

      對于選擇“按容量”方式計收基本電費的用電客戶,其用電負荷率一般較高(達到75%以上),在正常生產情況下變壓器需全容量投運。此種類型的用電客戶,建議配置一大一小兩臺及以上容量的變壓器,以便在生產負荷需求下降時,可以申請暫停部分容量的變壓器,以減少基本電費支出,避免出現因僅有的單臺變壓器停用會全廠失電而無法及時報停的情況。

      3.3 按需量計費的經濟運行方式

      3.3.1 規范用電管理。由于按需量計費需每月提前核定最大需量值,而最大需量值一經約定,實際用電最大需量應盡量接近(保持在核定值的100%-105%之間為最佳),若過高或過低則均會增加基本電費支出。因此,用電客戶尤其是大工業客戶,除應配置足額的持證專業電工、建立健全安全用電和設備運維規章制度外,還應建立生產用電管理機制,包括生產用電計劃、車間負荷監測、電量電費分析、節電獎懲措施等,從而不斷積累負荷預測經驗、壓降用電成本。

      3.3.2 加強用電監控。用電客戶要實現用電負荷精準控制,則必須借助一定的技術手段,以提供負荷控制和數據支撐。如當前較為成熟的用電負荷管理系統、需求側管理系統、能效管理系統等,均具備多路負荷實時監測、閥值預警和超限跳閘等功能。管理人員可據此開展產品單耗測定、最大需量預測、車間負荷控制等,從而最大限度地節省電費支出。

      3.3.3 及時反映異常。用電過程中由于某種原因,會導致用戶最大需量虛增。用戶在發現需量異常后,應及時與當地供電部門聯系反映有關情況,供電部門在核實后將會扣除相應需量。其中雙電源或多電源用戶容易發生需量虛增,引發需量虛增的原因主要有以下幾種:

      (1)供電部門計劃停電、臨時檢修,或惡劣天氣等導致用戶一路電源停電,用電負荷轉由另一路電源供電,從而出現該路最大負荷疊加。

      (2)根據供電部門調度指令,若雙電源用戶進行不停電合環倒閘操作時,系統將產生環流,從而會出現計量端最大需量疊加。

      3.4 合理利用暫停減容實現經濟運行

      不論選擇“按容量”還是“按需量”計收基本電費,通過暫停或減容多余的裝接容量都是最為直接有效的途徑。但在辦理暫減容業務時應把握幾項原則:一是暫停時間每次應不少于十五日,但每一日歷年內累計不超過六個月,超過六個月的可申請辦理減容,暫停減容次數不受限制。二是減容兩年內恢復的,按減容恢復辦理,超過兩年的按新裝或增容手續辦理。三是暫停(減容)后執行最大需量計量方式的,合同最大需量按照(減容)后總容量申報。

      4 結束語

      綜上所述,國家發改委辦公廳《關于完善兩部制電價用戶基本電價執行方式的通知》相關政策,的確在原有政策基礎上進行了較大的優化調整,給企業降低經濟運行成本提供了政策支撐。但這也需要用電客戶深入研究、精確控制、合理應用,才能真正享受到利好政策所帶來的實惠。

      參考文獻

      [1]張磊. 完善我國兩部制電價的策略研究[J]. 中國電力教育,2013,162-164.

      [2]譚樹森,蘇健祥. 再談兩部制電價與變壓器經濟運行[J]. 價值工程,2012,2-3.

      [3]夏光明. 淺談合環倒電與最大需量疊加[J]. 云南電力技術,2013,79-80.

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