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    計算機圖像處理技術在醫學影像學的應用

    來源:萬方期刊網  時間:2018-04-16 09:41:58  點擊:

      (首都醫科大學附屬北京世紀壇醫院放射科 北京 100038)

      【摘要】目的:此次研究的主要目的是為了計算機圖像處理技術在醫學影像學的應用效果進行分析。方法:本文在此次的研究中,從闡述醫學影像應用計算機圖像處理技術的目的和可行性的角度著手,對醫學影像中計算機圖像處理實際應用進行了論述,主要采用的方法是文獻分析法。結果:將計算機圖像處理技術應用到影像學處理當中,去噪的方式多種多樣,在實際的操作中,結合影像自身的特點、噪聲學的統計學特征以及頻譜固有的分布規律等,當前,較為常用的是均值濾波、低通濾波以及的中值濾波等算法均能對圖像予以平滑處理,使圖像更清晰,圖像生成的效果更具有真實性。清除干擾和降低噪聲主要是通過增強清晰度、對邊緣進行銳化、調整對比度以及偽色彩填充等,通過這幾種方式和方法,能在不同程度上提升圖像自身的清晰度。結論:通過本文的論述得知,計算機圖像處理技術的應用對醫學影像清晰度的提升具有深遠的影響,通過計算機技術對圖像的降噪、圖像質量的提升以及圖像邊緣的分割等方式,能在很大程度上提升圖像的質量。

      【關鍵詞】計算機;圖像處理技術;醫學影像學;技術應用

      【中圖分類號】R445 【文獻標識碼】A 【文章編號】1007-8231(2017)07-0007-02

      【Abstract】Objective The main purpose of this study is to analyze the effect of computer image processing technology in medical imaging. Methods In this study, the practical application of computer image processing in medical imaging is discussed from the perspectives of the purpose and feasibility of applying computer image processing technology to medical imaging. The main method is literature analysis. Results The computer image processing technology is applied to the image processing, the way of denoising is varied. In the actual operation, the characteristics of the image itself, the statistical characteristics of the noise and the distribution of the spectrum are inherent. At present, More commonly used is the mean filter, low-pass filter and the median filter algorithm can be smooth to the image, so that the image is more clear, the image generation effect is more authenticity. Clear interference and reduce noise mainly by enhancing the clarity of the edge of the sharpening, adjust the contrast and pseudo-color fill, etc., through these methods and methods, to varying degrees, enhance the clarity of the image itself. Conclusion Through the discussion of this paper, the application of computer image processing technology has a profound impact on the improvement of medical image clarity. By computer technology, the image noise reduction, image quality enhancement and image edge segmentation can be Greatly enhance the quality of the image.

      【Keywords】Computer; Image processing technology; Medical imaging; Technology application

      在先進科學技術快速發展下,將其廣泛的應用到醫療衛生領域中,對增強全民身體健康具有重要的意義。由于醫患之間的交流和醫學影像存在不清晰現象的問題,嚴重影像了的醫療領域的進步和發展,在科學技術突飛猛進的發展下,影像學逐漸被醫護人員重視,并廣泛的應用到實際身體檢查當中,影像學逐漸成為醫生了解患者病癥重要的輔助工具。但是,在實際應用當中,影像學由于受到外界環境的影響,圖像出現模糊不清晰的現象,這樣的圖像嚴重的影響了醫護人員對患者病癥的診斷。因此,本文從以下幾個方面對該課題進行了分析和研究。

      1.醫學影像應用計算機圖像處理技術的目的與可行性

      1.1 醫學影像應用計算機圖像處理技術的目的

      現今,在先進科學技術的支持下,影像學的發展和廣泛應用為患者病癥的檢測提供了重要的信息。在醫學影像設備實際圖像信號形成與傳輸的過程中,鑒于受到醫療器械自身、人為控制以及自然界噪聲等方面的干擾,圖像影片當中存在小部分模糊和對比度差的現象,這樣的狀況嚴重的影響著其質量,在病灶發展的前期,其空間形態產生的變化較小,拍出的影片用肉眼很難辨別和觀察,將導致誤診與漏診的現象出現,嚴重的影響了病癥的診斷。所以,對醫學影像學中采用計算機圖像處理技術方面的研究,對提升診斷結果的準確性具有重要的作用,將計算機圖像處理技術的廣泛應用能達到提升醫療機構治愈率的目的。

      1.2 醫學影像應用計算機圖像處理技術可行性分析

      在現今的醫學影像領域當中,計算機圖像處理和成像方面的技術存在一個共性,由于計算機技術能將圖像采集、顯示、傳遞以及存儲分解成為相對獨立的部分,這樣能實現每部圖像信息分別數字化,該種共性的特征為后續對圖像處理各個模塊進行專門優化提供了較為便利的條件,的對其開展圖像的信息后續處理方面的工作提供了可行性。以CT成像為例,對醫學影像予以預處理能去除影像中無用的信息和圖像,進而保留和恢復有用的信息,這樣的篩選方式在一定程度上強化了對病灶檢查信息的可讀性,重點凸顯出有用的信息,清除了不同因素形成的干擾因素,進而保留了的攝像過程中需要的影像形態與邊緣,以此提升醫學影像片的清晰度的,為醫護人員對患者病癥的檢測提供了重要的、準確的信息依據。

      2.醫學影像中計算機圖像處理實際應用

      2.1 醫學影像除噪

      關于醫學影像的生成與傳輸,由于受到自然界中各種聲音而造成干擾,這樣嚴重的降低了影像的質量,該種干擾類似日常生活中在交談的過程中被其他聲音打擾,在語言方面表現為對方語言信息獲取受到影響,在影像方面則表現為原本較為清晰的圖像,由于醫學器械自身的緣故(例如,電子元件)方面的干擾產生各種各樣的斑點或者條紋等,這些元素使得原本清晰的圖像變得模糊,這樣產生圖像效果不佳的原因便是圖像的噪聲。將計算機圖像處理技術應用到影像學處理當中,去噪的方式多種多樣,在實際的操作中,結合影像自身的特點、噪聲學的統計學特征以及頻譜固有的分布規律等,當前,較為常用的是均值濾波、低通濾波以及的中值濾波等算法均能對圖像予以平滑處理,使圖像更清晰,圖像生成的效果更具有真實性。

      2.2 醫學影像增強

      圖像增強屬于計算機圖像處理中重要的一項,影像學中圖像增強與復原的主要目的是提升醫學影像清晰效果,清除干擾和降低噪聲主要是通過增強清晰度、對邊緣進行銳化、調整對比度以及偽色彩填充等,通過上述的幾種方式和方法,能在不同程度上提升圖像自身的清晰度。圖像強化和圖像除噪的不同,主要體現在圖像增強不需要對影像降質方面的問題進行考慮,只需要對圖像中重點突出的部分進行處理即可。例如,增強圖像高頻的分量,被照患者身體組織輪廓的部位,這樣能使細節部分的特征凸顯出來,增加的圖像中低頻的部分,通過這樣的方式能有效的提升圖像的清晰度。而圖像增強主要是按照不同空間能劃分成基于空間域相對增強的方式,鑒于空間域的增強方式是對圖像中不同像素自身的灰度數值予以直接的處理,在對灰度數值進行計算時采用的算法有直方圖的均衡化和規定化,鑒于頻率域的增強方法并非是采用直接處理的方式,而是采用的傅里葉變換的形式,將空間域轉換為頻率域,并在頻率域中對頻譜進行處理,再采用反傅里葉變回到空間域,在實際轉化的過程中通常的算法有高通濾波、低通濾波以及同態濾波等。

      2.3 醫學影像分割

      圖像分割主要采用的是計算機醫學圖像處理領域的關鍵技術,其主要的目的是為了將圖像中有價值的部分從整個圖片當中抽離出來,劃分為互不影響和交叉的不同區域,有價值的內容通常指的是圖像的重點區域。圖像分割的方法基于灰度值主要劃分為鑒于區域內部灰度類似的分割與鑒于區域之間灰度不連續的分割。其中鑒于區域內部的灰度類型形式的分割,主要是確定圖像中每個像素點的歸屬區域,進而生成一個區域圖集,對圖像進行分割,一般采用的計算方式是閾值分割法、分裂合并法、形態學分割以及區域生長法等。而鑒于區域之間的灰度之間不連續的分割,主要值得是先對圖像中區域邊界進行提取,再對圖像邊界限定的區域進行確定。由于圖像中的邊緣部分通常是灰度級發生躍變的區域,按照像素灰度級具有的不連續的特點,在圖像中找到想點、線和邊的具體位置,對圖像的邊緣進行確定,一般采用的計算方法是Hough變換法。

      3.結論

      通過本文的論述得知,計算機圖像處理技術的應用對醫學影像清晰度的提升具有深遠的影響,通過計算機技術對圖像的降噪、圖像質量的提升以及圖像邊緣的分割等方式,能在很大程度上提升圖像的質量。但是,現階段應用的技術和計算方式的有效性仍需要提升。望此次研究和論述的內容能輔助計算機圖像處理技術在醫學影像學中廣泛的應用和發展。

      【參考文獻】

      [1]張貴英.計算機圖像處理技術在醫學中的應用[J].電腦知識與技術,2012,15:3696-3697.

      [2]尚蕾.計算機圖像處理技術在臨床醫學中的應用研究[J].科技信息,2012,25:119+125.

      [3]鄧霆.計算機圖像處理技術的應用[J].電子技術與軟件工程,2014,24:175.

      [4]李玉榮.計算機圖像處理技術的應用策略研究[J].科技創新與應用,2015,23:111.

      [5]李越.數字圖像處理技術在醫學影像中的研究與應用[J].通訊世界,2015,15:253.

      [6]李婷.計算機圖像處理技術的應用對策[J].科技創新與應用,2015,34:104.

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