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    氯氣泄漏應急處置分析

    來源:萬方期刊網  時間:2018-04-13 15:26:40  點擊:

      攀枝花市公安消防支隊 四川省攀枝花市 617000

      摘要:隨著化工業的快速發展,在生產介質上不斷采用易燃、易爆、有毒、有害、有腐蝕性、放射性的危險化學品,雖然生產工藝不斷現代化,但出現危化品泄漏的事故時常發生。本文歸納了氯氣的理化性質,對其引發事故的的危險性進行了分析,提出了有針對性的處置和預防措施。

      關鍵詞:氯氣;災害事故;處置

      氯氣是容易導致化學事故的主要化學物質之一,氯氣是有劇毒、強污染物質的,一旦泄漏即可能造成人員傷亡,生產設備破壞,附近環境嚴重污染等惡性后果。近年來我國液氯在生產、儲存和運輸過程中常發生泄漏事故。

      1.氯氣的理化性質

      氯氣為黃綠色有刺激性氣味的氣體,氣態相對密度為2.48(比空氣重),液態相對密度為1.47(比水重)。在空氣中不易擴散,絕對壓力為1個大氣壓的純氣體,在-35℃時成為液態,氯氣易溶于水和堿性溶液。液氯由液態變為氣態體積擴大約400倍。氯氣是強氧化劑,本身不燃,能助然。在日光條件下于易燃氣體混合時,會發生燃燒爆炸。氯氣能與乙炔、乙醚等大多數有機物和松節油、氨、金屬粉末等物質猛烈反應發生爆炸或生成爆炸性混合物,具有強烈的刺激性和腐蝕性。與水反應化學方程式:Cl2+H2O=HCl+HClO與氫氧化鈣反化學方程式2Cl2+3Ca(OH)2=Ca(ClO)2+CaCl2.Ca(OH)2.2H2O 。

      2. 氯氣泄漏的危害性

      氯氣有劇毒,人體吸入后,主要損害上呼吸道及支氣管的粘膜。低濃度時,只刺激眼和上呼吸道;高濃度時,傷害全呼吸道,可引起肺水腫。氯氣對全身都有影響,可損害中樞神經系統,出現血壓偏低、竇性心動過緩和心率不齊等。吸入高濃度氯氣后,人體會因迷走神經反射性心跳驟停,發生“電擊樣”死亡。液氯接觸皮膚,還會發生灼傷成急性皮炎。空氣中最高允許濃度為 0.002mg/L,超過2.5mg/L人吸入后立即死亡。氯氣通過降溫或者加壓以液態形式進行儲存和運輸,即為液氯。2004年4月15日,重慶天原化工總廠發生氯氣泄漏及局部爆炸,造成9人死亡,3人受重傷,被疏散群眾15萬人;2001年8月3日,蘭州市某廢金屬回收公司的氯氣鋼瓶在太陽下長期暴曬,導致閥門開裂,瓶內氯氣泄漏,造成60多人重度中毒,其中有10多名兒童。2000年貴州省凱里市“7.22”物資局廢舊回收公司氯氣泄漏事故,造成28名消防官兵不同程度中毒。

      3. 氯氣泄漏事故的特點

      3.1突發性強,易引發次生災害事故,危害性大。氯氣泄漏事故由于時間和場所不確定性,并非像建筑物倒塌那樣,災情基本定格,規模基本形成,而氯氣泄漏僅僅是災害事故的開始,液氯泄漏后體積迅速擴大,隨風向向低洼處飄移,形成大面積染毒區,嚴重威脅人員的安全,危機家畜和自然界的其他生命,同時,大量氯氣泄漏,嚴重污染空氣、地表和水體,并易滯留在下水道溝渠、低洼地等處,不易擴散,全面、徹底洗消困難,易形成次生災害,如處理不當將在較長時間內危害生態環境。

      3.2現場險情具有隱蔽性。泄漏現場隨時可能發生惡性事故,誘發因素防不勝防,在進行堵漏、關閥、稀釋、溶解時,都冒著極大的風險,處置工作處在生死一線之間。

      3.3處置程序復雜,指揮和救援難度大。氯氣泄漏現場警戒、檢測、疏散群眾、搶救人命、稀釋溶解、堵漏關閥、化學中和、倒罐轉輸以及指揮位置,停車位置,處置方案、確定攻堅組等問題,稍有不慎就會危害全局,釀成大禍。

      3.4個人防護和社會聯動要求高。對于進入氯氣泄漏事故現場的搶險人員必須按照一級防護等級實施個人防護;現場處置,除消防外還需要調集公安、交通、醫療救護、環保等部門,聯動作戰才能處置,

      4. 關于氯氣泄漏事故處置方法

      4.1力量調集。接到報警后應啟動預案,調集轄區中隊、特勤中隊或者臨近中隊等力量,調集防化救援、防化洗消、搶險救援、水罐車,以及遙控水炮、水幕發生器、有毒氣體探測儀、防護、警戒、堵漏、輸轉、洗消、照明、通信等器材、設備。同時通知公安、交警、氣象、環保、衛生等部門配合搶險救援行動。在泄漏區域的上風向設置指揮部和停靠消防車,并保持適當的距離。

      4.2偵查檢測。

      通過詢問、偵查、檢測、監測,以及測定風力和風向,利用重大危險源輔助決策系統,掌握泄漏區域的氣體濃度和擴散方向,劃定警戒范圍并組織營救和疏散;查明泄漏的具體部位,泄漏區域是否存在能與氯氣發生劇烈反應的危險化學物質(如存在與其可能發生劇烈反應的物質必須立即轉移);查明儲罐的儲量,臨近罐的情況以及地下管線,溝渠的布局走向;事故現場的水源和泄漏區域的污染情況。

      4.3警戒疏散。疏散泄漏區域和擴散可能波及范圍內的無關人員,根據偵檢情況,確定警戒范圍,并劃分重危區、輕危區和安全區,設置警戒標志和出入口。嚴格控制進入警戒區特別是重危區的人員、車輛和物資,進行安全檢查和登記。進入重危區的人員必須實施一級防護,并采取水槍掩護。現場作業人員防護等級不低于二級。進入警戒區的人員一定要專業精干,按照嚴格的防護等級進行個人防護。設置觀察哨,確定撤離信號,對救援全過程實施動態檢測,同時注意觀察掌握救援人員的身體狀況,進行跟蹤檢查。

      4.4在確保供水的同時,啟動事故單位的噴淋系統進行稀釋,或者以泄漏點為中心,在儲罐和容器的四周設置水幕或噴霧水槍進行降毒稀釋。生產設備管道、閥門泄漏尚未損壞的應當及時在技術人員的協助下關閥斷料、轉輸倒罐。

      4.5儲罐、容器發生小面積泄漏的可以在消防車水箱內加入碳酸氫鈉或者氫氧化鈣等堿性物質向罐體噴射,以減輕危害;運輸途中的槽車或鋼瓶發生泄漏,又無法堵漏的,可以將其侵入碳酸氫鈉或者氫氧化鈣等堿性物質的溶液內進行中和。同時做好后續的處理工作,要嚴禁中和水流入河流,下水道、密閉空間,防止造成污染。

      4.6設置洗消站,對進入重度區和中度區的人員和裝備進行洗消,對進入重度區和中度區的人員送往醫院檢查治療。

      4.7對事故現場利用化學方法(碳酸氫鈉或者氫氧化鈣等堿性物質噴灑)和物理方法(用吸附墊、活性炭等具有吸附能力的物質吸附)以及簡單排毒法進行洗消。用噴霧水、蒸汽或惰性氣體清掃事故現場內的儲罐、管道、低洼地、下水道、溝渠等處,確保不留殘液。

      5.加強氯氣事故預防處理措施

      5.1嚴格把好氯氣生產關。氯氣的生產應符合GB5138—5139中規定的產品標準,其中純度≥99.5%,含水≤0.06。液氯的充裝壓力不得低于1.1MPa,生產設備、管道和閥門,安裝前要經清洗、干燥處理。閥門要逐只做耐壓實驗,保證氯氣生產的安全 。

      5.2把好運輸關,防止氯氣槽車發生泄露。運輸過程中發生交通事故時產生的氯氣泄漏在公路運輸過程中,由于車輛交通事故或其他原因導致氯氣鋼瓶破裂發生泄漏。要避免此類事故的發生就要嚴格液氯運輸的程序和要求。對駕駛人員和管理人員都要經過嚴格的培訓及考核,必須持證上崗,同時各個部門必須從槽車(罐)的質量、運輸的質量、駕駛人員、管理人員、運輸時間地點等情況進行嚴格的控制,保好運輸關。

      5.3把好儲存關,確保儲存安全。氯氣鋼瓶應存放在陰涼、干燥、具有良好通風條件的的不燃結構的庫房內,遠離火源、熱源,防止日光直射,氯氣儲罐的儲存應與可燃物質、有機物或者其它氧化物質隔離,專庫專儲,特別注意要將其能與之反應的物質隔離(如氫氣、乙炔、氨氣、松節油、金屬粉末)。專庫存儲的鋼瓶或者是固定儲罐的建筑物內必須設置噴淋裝置,當發生氯氣泄露時可以啟動噴淋,稀釋、溶解泄漏出的氯氣。同時,儲庫內必須配備空氣(氧氣)呼吸器、專用防毒面具和膠靴、手套等物品,為萬一發生事故提供可靠地搶險救援設備。

      5.4遵循氯氣使用安全規定,把好氯氣使用關。使用過程中違章操作時產生的氯氣泄漏使用氯氣過程中,由于員工麻痹大意、違章操作、人員擅離崗位或鋼瓶閥門關閉不緊等原因造成氯氣泄漏;機械設備發生故障時產生的氯氣泄漏在生產、儲存過程中,因管道裂口、閥門生銹或損壞等設備故障導致氯氣泄漏;回收的廢舊氯氣鋼瓶發生氯氣泄漏。廢品回收單位對收回的廢舊氯氣鋼瓶,有的棄于室外任其日曬雨淋,有的則是在毫無防護的情況下對其自行拆卸,結果導致瓶內的殘余氯氣發生泄漏。

      6.結語

      根據本文上述情況可知,以上幾點就是由于在使用氯氣過程中常常發生的情況,也是氯氣泄露的主要原因,要避免事故的發生就要嚴格遵守安全使用規定;不斷積累經驗和教訓,加強氯氣事故處置和消防技術方法的研究,對減少氯氣泄漏傷害和污染有著深遠的意義。

      參考文獻

      [1]《滅火救援教程》

      [2]《中國消防全書》

      [3]《消防安全監管與搶險救災實務全書》

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