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    珍稀植物保護與開發利用探討

    來源:萬方期刊網  時間:2018-04-11 11:13:04  點擊:

      摘要從當前珍稀植物保護的情況來看,加強對珍稀植物的保護,對于人類的可持續發展具有十分重要的意義。延緩物種的滅絕,加強那些地方特有或者處于瀕臨滅絕狀態的珍稀植物的保育成為當前迫在眉睫的問題。從多角度針對珍稀植物保護與開發利用展開了一系列分析,以供參考。

      關鍵詞珍稀植物;保護;開發利用

      中圖分類號:Q949.9 文獻標志碼:B 文章編號:1673-890X(2016)09-233-02

      珍稀植物不僅在維護生態平衡方面發揮了重要作用,同時在植物科學研究及資源開發利用等方面也具有十分重要的價值。如果這些中國特有的種質資源消失了,對植物多樣性的研究和生態平衡的維護將會造成不可估量的損失。從近年來對國內外物種保護的經驗來看,一個物種消失往往會造成多個以其為生物種的滅絕,嚴重破壞生物多樣性。因此必須及時搶救這些瀕危的植物。

      1珍稀植物保護與開發利用存在的問題

      植物是生物多樣性中的核心組成部分,對于維持地球生態系統具有十分重要的作用;同時,也是人類生存各項資源的基本來源,是人類與其他生物繁衍生息的基本資源。但當前,我國珍稀植物的數量越來越少,很多珍稀植物面臨滅絕的危險,這種情況下加強珍稀植物保護與開發利用很有必要。下面主要總結當前我國珍稀植物保護與開發利用過程中存在的問題。

      1.1經費投入不足

      實際上很多地區的的預算中并沒有專門設置珍稀植物的保護專項基金,這方面的經費投入到目前為止還沒有形成正規的資金渠道。這種情況下,直接造成了珍稀植物保護經費開始方面的困難,當前珍稀植物保護正面臨著投入嚴重不足的問題。因為珍稀植物保護的經費緊張,面臨著開支困難的現狀,因此很多這方面的科研及保護工作無法正常進行。這不僅對珍稀植物的保護工作造成了嚴重影響,同時相關科研及宣傳工作也只能停留在一般的水平上,大大制約了珍稀植物經濟效益、社會效益及生態效益的發揮。

      1.2缺乏專業的人員與管理機構

      當前,我國野生動植物保護與管理工作流于形式,管理機構不完善,專業人員缺乏,總體專業水平不高。很多鄉鎮林業站將野生動植物保護的牌子掛出來,多數人員均為兼職,加上珍稀植物保護地區均處于偏遠的山區,面臨著生活條件艱苦、交通不便以及福利待遇不高等問題,因此,我國珍稀植物保護隊伍并不穩定,現有的條件無法留住專業的技術人員和管理人員。

      1.3珍稀植物資源遭受嚴重破壞

      當前,我國珍稀植物正逐漸減少,珍稀植物資源遭到了十分嚴重的破壞,實際上出現當前這種現狀,其原因可以從以下幾方面展開分析。第一,經過過去幾十年的過度采伐,很多天然闊葉林破壞十分嚴重,尤其是南方紅豆杉、楠木等珍稀植物已經瀕臨采伐殆盡。第二,大量違法犯罪現象出現,如近年來亂砍濫伐現象猖獗。改革開放以后,一些人受到珍稀植物市場好、經濟效益高等因素的影響,不惜以經營珍稀植物為手段謀取暴利,通過一些不正當手段進行采伐,因此野生珍稀植物越來越少。第三,當前人工造林的數量相對比較少,廣大林農對珍稀植物苗木的營造積極性不高,林政相關部門也沒有針對人工珍稀植物營造提供更多的優惠措施,嚴重影響了林農對珍稀植物造林的積極性。

      2珍稀植物保護與開發利用的途徑

      地球上所有生命都是從原始生命進化來的,人類作為自然中的一分子,要想生存下去必然需要和自然發生關系。人類不能為了從自然界中獲取資源就肆無忌憚的開發自然,應該對人與自然和諧相處的途徑進行積極探索。為此,珍稀植物保護與開發利用的最終目的應該是實現對這些瀕危植物的可持續利用。

      2.1加大宣傳力度,提升保護意識

      政府部門應該積極利用廣播、電視等新聞媒體對珍稀植物的保護與開發利用進行宣傳,在各種場合向廣發人民群眾介紹珍稀植物,尤其是讓大家了解珍稀植物保護的重要現實意義,使民眾樹立對珍稀植物進行保護的責任,通過一系列措施使各級領導對珍稀植物保護引起重視,增強廣大人民群眾對珍稀植物保護工作的理解與支持,營造出一種全民保護珍稀植物的良好氛圍。

      2.2完善珍稀植物保護機構,提升專業人員綜合素質

      政府應該將珍稀植物保護與開發利用看成一項重要工作,監督相關部門將這項工作貫徹落實到具體地方,按照相關法律法規及管理條例,加大執法力度,針對亂砍濫伐等不法行為應嚴厲懲處。同時,進一步加快自然保護區建設,建立健全珍稀動植物保護與管理機構,并配備專業的管理人員和技術人員,提高相關人員的工資待遇水平,為技術骨干人員技術水平的提升創造有利條件,組織相關管理人員與技術人員到專業院校培訓和深造,有效提升他們的業務水平,這樣才能從根本上解決專業人員不夠的問題。

      2.3增加資金投入,加強培育研究

      由于受到多種條件的制約,當前珍稀植物數量越來越少,加上保護方面的經費投入不足,這方面的科研明顯滯后。如果可以在珍稀植物培育上增加科研經費,就可以有步驟的開發瀕危物種,加強對關鍵種基因資源的保護與開發利用,增進經濟、社會及生態方面的效益。

      2.4保證開發利用的合理性

      在珍稀植物保護與開發利用工作中,應該將合理培育資源作為基礎,不僅要防治出現過量采集的問題,還要積極挖掘新品種,積極引進野生植物類型,加大力度培育優良品種。在實際工作中應該將發展加工業為主體,使植物資源利用從粗加工向深加工發展,建立起集生產、經營及科研等一體化的載體,對視頻、藥品及香料等進行有計劃的開發,積極開拓國際市場。充分利用野生植物的各部分進行加工,促進野生植物綜合效益的提高。

      2.5重視植物的繁殖馴化,使園林綠化樹種得到增加

      通常情況下城市園林綠化樹種會采用一些花色各異、樹形優美的野生植物,這樣不僅可以有效節約成本,還能使綠化樹種的種類得到增加,一改當前我國市場上綠化樹種較為單一的局面,將野生樹種馴化成城市園林綠化樹種,這樣可以使廣大城市居民充分了解和認識野生植物,這對增強大家對環境進行保護的意識非常重要,起到了無形的宣傳效果與作用。

      3結語

      珍稀植物是非常重要的社會財富,應該對這些珍稀植物進行較好的保護與開發利用,這樣才能更好地維護生物多樣性,保證資源得到持續利用,在有限的資源下創造出最多財富,為城市園林綠化及家具美化提供服務。

      參考文獻

      [1]孟慶法,高紅莉,王洪友,等.河南省珍稀樹種資源保護及開發利用對策[J].地域研究與開發,2009(4):134-138.

      [2]許耀輝,甘新軍,曾振軍.廣東省從化市野生珍稀瀕危植物觀賞特性評價及其開發利用[J].熱帶林業,2006(3):34-35,30.

      [3]李國標,林中大.清遠市野生珍稀瀕危植物的觀賞特性及開發利用[J].廣西林業科學,2007(3):158-163.

      [4]許小妹,周煥起,黃麗云,等.珍稀瀕危植物龍棕的保護與開發利用[J].中國農村小康科技,2010(9):53-55.

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