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    您的位置:首頁 > 萬方期刊網 > 論文分類> 哥特式建筑在意大利“遇冷”的原因淺析

    哥特式建筑在意大利“遇冷”的原因淺析

    來源:萬方期刊網  時間:2018-04-16 13:52:46  點擊:

      摘 要:哥特式建筑藝術誕生于十一世紀后半葉的法國,其獨特的風格迅速流行于整個歐洲大陸,卻單單在鄰國意大利受到了“冷遇”。彼時的意大利,隨處可見的是敦實厚重的羅馬式建筑,而以尖形肋骨拱頂、彩色玻璃窗為特點的哥特式建筑猶如怪物般無法融入。意大利的哥特式建筑,數量極少且形態各異,但始終沒有擺脫羅馬式建筑所打下的深深印記。這一現象的產生,與意大利的社會文化、傳統風俗等意識形態有著密不可分的聯系。

      關鍵詞:哥特式;建筑;意大利;遇冷;原因

      一、詞源及歷史

      “哥特式”一詞明確來源于哥特人,他們屬于日耳曼民族的一支,曾在公元410年洗劫了羅馬,又在公元455年卷土重來對其倍加蹂躪,最終直接導致了羅馬帝國的滅亡。公元535~555年,拜占庭帝國和東哥特人在爭奪領土上進行了一場曠日持久的戰爭,長期的戰爭對意大利半島的破壞無以復加,城市人口急劇減少,民不聊生,瘟疫肆虐。1494年及1527年,法國和德國又分別再次入侵意大利,一次次的掠奪和戰爭,迫使意大利銘記了來自阿爾卑斯山以北的侵略者,并從心底產生出對他們深深的敵視。

      “哥特式”一詞最初是由文藝復興時期的學者發明的,基于對哥特人侵略古羅馬帝國的仇恨,這個詞一出現,便是帶有貶義的色彩,作為古典文化的繼承者和復興之士,文藝復興時期的意大利學者,在用哥特式一詞描繪侵略者的建筑樣式時,事實上將其用作了粗野與怪誕的同義詞,也以此表達了他們對野蠻的北方建筑文化的鄙視,因此,從詞源和歷史角度上來講,意大利更傾向于在接下來的幾個世紀中,保持傳統敦厚的羅馬式建筑風格,順而繼續高傲的鄙薄著北方侵略者的建筑風格。

      二、傳統觀念與宗教文化

      相較于法國哥特教堂追求的無限夸張的垂直度,意大利哥特式教堂高聳的程度明顯合理很多,這主要可以通過傳統觀念和宗教文化兩個方面來得到解釋。

      崇尚傳統文化是意大利人民的共性,他們天生對外來的事物存有懷疑和否定態度,并對本民族的文化又有著強烈的自豪感,在意大利不同程度的被拜占庭建筑、早期基督教建筑等模式影響后,意大利人民敏感保守的特性瞬間被激發,他們試圖通過不斷的增加建筑的沉重感和穩定性,來表現其對傳統建筑的忠貞,從而使外來的建筑風格很難落腳。因此,我們說因循守舊保守也好,對本民族燦爛輝煌傳統文化的極度崇拜也罷,意大利人始終從觀念上難以接受哥特式建筑風格。

      在法國,教堂被認為是人們日常生活中最重要的建筑,無論身處城市的任何角落,只要能夠看到教堂,人們就會感到安心,那時的教堂對于法國人,就如同燈塔對于水手的意義,因此它總是被修建的高聳入云;而教堂的內部通常無比明亮,因為依照圣經上講,上帝就是光,教堂越高聳明亮,越能表達對上帝的虔誠。而在意大利的宗教文化看來,只有羅馬式建筑的厚重,才能表達出他們對上帝的尊敬和敬仰,一味的追求縱向的高度并不能說明任何問題,哥特式建筑也無非是對成熟的羅馬式建筑藝術的補充。

      三、地理條件

      意大利教堂不一味追求高度的另一個重要原因,是受當地的地理條件所限。意大利位于地中海-喜馬拉雅地震帶上,地處非洲板塊與亞歐板塊的邊界,所以地殼運動活躍,地震頻繁,這樣的地勢,無法承受過于夸張的垂直向上的建筑方式,只有橫向發展的敦實結構才能使教堂穩固于活躍的地殼之上,從而提高抗震性。除地震外,強風也是限制意大利建筑無限向上延伸的重要地理因素之一。

      但是在獲得光照這一方面,意大利有著得天獨厚的優越條件,與北部國家的陰冷相比,意大利可謂是太陽之國,因此意大利的教堂無需通過高聳入云的架勢以及過多的窗戶,便可獲得足夠的光照。

      四、政治因素

      長期的分裂割據,是導致哥特式建筑無法在意大利順利傳播的政治原因,由于缺少一個統一的國家與外界對話,意大利各城邦國各自為政,對外界的新事物充耳不聞,除了北部的倫巴第大區在中世紀或多或少的參與了哥特式建筑在歐洲的進程之外,其他地區都緊閉大門,按部就班的依照自己的興趣發展著各自的建筑風格,但這些所謂的“各自的建筑風格”,其實萬變不離其宗,仍是羅馬式建筑的不同程度的延伸。

      總之:意大利的哥特式建筑是在傳統羅馬式建筑的基礎上發展而來的,實際上,意大利人始終無法接受歐洲大教堂的先進技術和大膽創新的框架結構,他們無法拋棄羅馬式建筑藝術的和諧感,只是把哥特式作為一種裝飾風格,作為對羅馬式建筑的補充。通過文中對意大利歷史文化和意識形態等方面的闡述,我們便不難理解,哥特式建筑在意大利遭受排斥和冷遇的真正原因。

      參考文獻:

      [1]Ernst H. Gomnrich, Maria Luisa Spaziani La Storia dell’arte, LEONARDO ARTE, 1995.

      [2]Louis Grodecki, Architettura gotica, Milano, Electa, 1976.

      [3]Giulio Carlo Argan, Storia dell’arte italiana, vol. 1 e 2, Firenze 1968-2000.

      [4]Eleonora Bairati e Anna Finocchi, Loescher, Arte in Italia, 1988, vol. 1, p.386.

      [5]Giulio Nepote, L’Italia sotto il dominio dei goti, dal 474 al 553 d.C.

      [6]洪洋,《哥特式藝術》 河北:河北教育出版社; 第1版 (2003年12月1日).

      [7][英]埃米爾?馬勒, 《哥特式圖像: 13世紀的法蘭西宗教藝術》 (The Gothic Image: Religious Art in France of the Thirteenth Century), 曾四凱 (注), 嚴善?T,梅娜芳 (譯), 北京:中國美術學院出版社; 第1版 (2008年4月1日).

      [8]陳平,《外國建筑史:從遠古至19世紀》,南京: 東南大學出版社; 第1版 (2006年2月1日).

      [9]劉明翰,朱龍華,王素色,趙立行 《歐洲文藝復興史:藝術卷》,北京:人民出版社(2008年3月1日).

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