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    淺談徽劇的戲服、戲鞋

    來源:萬方期刊網  時間:2018-04-16 14:04:20  點擊:

      【摘 要】徽劇衣箱有著二百多年的歷史,經過“青陽腔”“吹腔”“娃娃調”的長期使用,經過一代又一代藝術家、管箱老師的實踐和研究,繡花紋樣、樣式品種有了很大的變化,并形成了一整套衣箱制,有扮相譜、穿戴提綱等等。徽劇衣箱用有限的服裝來表達幾千年的歷史故事人物,確實是物盡其用。可以說,在藝術上,徽劇服裝的使用是世界藝術品種中,最聰明、最經濟、最奪目、最色彩斑斕的服裝,令世人矚目。

      【關鍵詞】徽劇;舞臺;服裝

      中圖分類號:J816 文獻標志碼:A 文章編號:1007-0125(2015)10-0044-02

      徽劇舞臺上的戲裝藝術,是中國特有的傳統服飾藝術。它所體現出的?麗之美、古樸之美、凝重之美、典雅之美,令人目不暇接,具有感人至深的藝術魅力。舞臺服裝作為徽劇表演藝術的一個重要組成部分,其內容與形式的高度統一所呈現出來的鮮明藝術特征,幾百年來一直深受人民的欣賞和喜愛,并被視為中華民族獨具風格的服飾精華。

      徽劇傳統的服裝和京劇一樣包括蟒、靠、褶、盔帽、靴鞋等附件,又名戲衣,俗稱行頭,人物的冠戴即稱盔頭。過去徽班且有“江湖行頭”“內班行頭”“私房行頭”與“官中行頭”之分。戲服的穿戴規制,早在宋、元時期已有“披秉”“素扮”“道扮”“藍扮”等名目的文字記載。尤其是到了明代后期,由于上演的劇目不斷更新,表演藝術的發展提高,使歌與舞有了進一步的綜合,演員行當的分工更加具體明確,以及戲班經濟條件改善,從而在舞臺美術方面出現了一個戲衣、盔帽、化妝、裝置等全面發展的新局面。如當時由徽商資演的徽班行頭已經分成衣、盔、雜、把四箱。雖然傳統的徽劇服飾成型于清代,但其規格式樣基本上是以明代服飾為基礎,并參酌唐、宋、元、清等朝代服飾之典型,加以綜合與美化創造的。

      徽劇的傳統演出劇目,上至商周,下至明清。盡管朝代歷經變遷,但服裝作為戲曲的整體,在使用上無論是生、旦、凈、丑,還是忠、奸、貧、富,都可一服多用,靈活性很大。比如唐代戲與其他朝代戲可以完全采用一套服裝,來表現不同的人物。其特點就是不受時代、地域和季節的限制,而主要根據劇中人物的社會地位、階層職業、等級身份、生活條件的不同,在演出中與觀眾約定俗成,形成了一套嚴謹規范的舞臺穿戴規制。因此,行內常流行“寧穿破,不穿錯”的說法,意思是破舊是經濟條件問題,而穿錯則視為藝術素養上的原則問題。可見傳統的徽劇服飾是經過了歷代表演藝術家的精心設計,在長期的藝術實踐中逐步變革與不斷創新而形成的。

      徽劇服裝的色彩美,具有很濃烈的民族性與服飾性。它在設計中充分運用和體現了中國傳統的色彩學和工藝美術的繪畫諸原則。把龍鳳、花鳥、走獸、魚蟲、云水等各種紋樣飾物夸張變形,以絢麗奪目、對比強烈的技法,使自然美和諧地與服飾性、圖案性統一結合,從而構成對舞臺人物性格、形象的表現力,能夠充分發揮色彩給人們帶來的美感和共鳴。徽劇服飾在色彩的運用上,不僅以美術功能和傳統的美學原則體現了中華民族的審美習慣和歷史知識,給人美的享受和感染,而且它在各種綢緞用料、棉麻織品等繡制工藝的觀感方面,還十分講究用五光十色的平金、平銀繡,以及富麗輝煌的金絨繡和清雅俊美的絨繡制作而成,被人們視為珍貴的藝術品。

      徽班的服裝除繼承了傳統戲曲服裝的特點外,還在長期的藝術實踐中有了豐富的發展。按其類別可分為“大衣箱”“二衣箱”“盔頭箱”等。

      大衣箱:置放文服――男蟒、女蟒、老旦蟒、改良蟒、男官衣、女官衣、男帔、女帔、觀音帔、閨門帔、宮女服、男褶子、女褶子、開氅、青衣、道袍、法衣、青袍、宮衣、舞衣、馬面裙、百褶裙、老旦裙、蝴蝶裙、腰包裙、大腰包、便裙、斗篷、一口鐘、龍套衣、太監衣、男坎肩、女坎肩、馬甲、背心、罪衣、雷公衣、鐘馗衣、水袖、水裙、彩褲、胖襖、云肩、護領等。

      二衣箱:置放武服――男靠、女靠、軟靠、改良靠、開氅、箭靠、箭衣、龍箭衣、花箭衣、素箭衣、大鎧、站堂鎧、戰裙戰襖、抱衣抱褲、豹衣豹褲、打衣打褲、英雄衣、上手衣、下手衣、快衣、馬褂、團龍馬褂、劊子手衣、孝衣、露肚、僧衣、猴衣等。

      三衣箱:置放――水衣、胖襖、護領、彩褲、小袖、水袖、狐尾、彩旦衣、靴鞋,以及草把、駝背、佝僂、腆腹等塑形用品。

      盔頭箱:置放――帥盔、夫子盔、罐子盔、側纓盔、霸王盔、中軍盔、蝴蝶盔、獅子盔、虎頭盔、荷葉盔、扎巾盔、八角盔、八面威、二郎岔、鉆頭盔、九龍冠、平頂冠、沖天冠、玉皇冠、草王冠、紫金冠、五佛冠、半鳳冠、皇帽、王帽、堂帽、紗帽、羅帽、僧帽、太監帽、汾陽帽、學士帽、皂隸帽、風帽、皇巾、帝巾、將巾、相巾、夫子巾、東坡巾、一字巾、員外巾、小生巾、八卦巾、扎巾、高方巾、四輪巾、四棱巾、荷葉巾、文生巾、公子巾、武生巾、鴨尾巾、老人巾、秀才巾、窮生巾、苦生巾、許仙巾、如意巾、橋梁巾等。盔帽箱中還有各類須、發、雉尾翎、狐貍尾、假臉、螺絲頂等。

      徽劇舞臺上的戲鞋分為靴、鞋兩類,靴可以分為厚底、薄底和方頭三種。

      穿蟒的皇帝、親王、官衣玉帶的大臣、頂盔扎靠的武將和一些自立為王的山寨王都穿厚底靴。關羽的厚底有些特殊:綠緞面、繡花靴尖有虎頭,這是為突出他的威武并和他所穿的服裝一致,如徽劇《古城令》《水淹七軍》等。

      一些綠林英雄、仗義俠客、捕盜快手,可以說凡是短打武生和武丑扮演的角色都穿薄底,薄底分為黑色、白色和花色幾種,穿黑的較多,像《夜奔》里的林沖,《探莊》里的石秀,《四杰村》里的余千等;穿白的如《三岔口》里的任堂惠;其他花色的薄底是為和服裝的顏色一致的緣故等。一些能征善戰的女將、女英雄,如穆桂英、何玉鳳都穿繡花女薄底鞋。

      方頭靴,又名朝方,應用較窄,只有方巾丑穿它。像《刺湯》里的湯勤、《盜書》里的蔣干都穿這種靴。

      徽劇舞臺上的鞋很多,青衣和花旦穿的都是彩鞋,如《武家坡》里的王寶釧、《宇宙鋒》里的趙艷榮、《西廂記》里的崔鶯鶯等。

      襪子鞋是彩旦穿的,緞面、鞋頭是尖的并穿有鞋帶,《拾玉鐲》里的劉媒婆、《能仁寺》里的賽西施都是穿大紅襪子鞋。

      花盆底鞋又叫旗鞋,由兩部分組成,穿這種鞋的全是外族有地位的女子,像《四郎探母》里的鐵鏡公主、《劉銘傳》里的慈禧太后、《大登殿》里的代戰公主。

      夫子履(又名福字履)、云履、如意履三種鞋的樣式差不多,可以說都是緞子面、高麗紙的厚底鞋,夫子履和云履在緞面上繡有一層層云彩,云履的底較夫子履的厚,如意履是在鞋前訂一個緞面的如意頭。夫子履的應用很廣泛,一般老旦都穿這種鞋。另外,一些窮書生像《洪鸞喜》里的英稽,《打棍出箱》里的范仲禹也都穿它。云履又叫登云履,老道經常穿它,諸葛亮在《借東風》里穿它。穿如意履的多是讀書的公子或受人尊重的長者,像《柳蔭記》里的梁山伯、《三顧茅廬》里的黃錄彥等。

      方口皂鞋是勞動人民穿的鞋,所謂方口皂并不是口是方的,而是指鞋底是長方的,黑緞面,和現在男人的布鞋相似,老百姓、家院、店家都穿它。還有一種厚底方口皂鞋,《四進士》里的宋士杰、《蘇武牧羊》里的蘇武穿它。

      魚鱗灑鞋,水路英雄穿得很多,草莽中善于飛檐走壁的英雄穿它,像《時遷偷雞》里的時遷、《三岔口》里的劉利華。

      另外,打柴的樵夫、撐船的漁夫穿的是草鞋,和尚的鞋是黃緞面,叫僧鞋。

      自徽班進京二百多年以來,徽劇服裝一直都是為塑造人物輔助表演并為劇情服務的,它一直成為伴隨舞臺表演的重要手段,以特有的功能和特征得到演員和觀眾的認可。它不僅有實用價值,而且有著很高的觀賞價值,成為我國戲曲特有的服飾美的精粹。這種以現實主義和浪漫主義手法相結合逐步積淀形成的徽劇服裝,具有我國戲曲服飾獨特的美學價值。

    淺談徽劇的戲服、戲鞋相關期刊:

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