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    您的位置:首頁 > 萬方期刊網 > 論文分類> 肖邦《升f小調波羅乃茲舞曲Op.44》音樂演奏分析

    肖邦《升f小調波羅乃茲舞曲Op.44》音樂演奏分析

    來源:萬方期刊網  時間:2018-04-16 14:12:58  點擊:

      【摘 要】波羅乃茲源于波蘭,它不像瑪祖卡那樣具有民間風俗的特性,但是它擁有莊重華麗的波蘭貴族氣息,由于大多數都是3/4拍子的節奏,所以又常常被叫做波蘭舞曲。當年寫波羅乃茲最多的作曲家當屬波蘭音樂家肖邦,我們熟知的有《軍隊波羅乃茲》和《英雄波羅乃茲》,但是這首《升f小調波羅乃茲》也別具風味。

      【關鍵詞】肖邦;波羅乃茲;波蘭舞曲;演奏分析

      中圖分類號:J624.1 文獻標志碼:A 文章編號:1007-0125(2015)10-0093-01

      一、肖邦及其作品簡介

      弗雷德里克?佛朗索瓦?肖邦,是享譽世界的波蘭音樂家,浪漫主義時期的代表人物。肖邦一生以創作鋼琴音樂作品為主,是西方音樂史上最重要的音樂家之一,《練習曲》、《圓舞曲》、《夜曲》、《敘事曲》、《前奏曲》、《波羅乃茲舞曲》等均是他的代表作。

      肖邦音樂作品風格豐富,比如他的夜曲作品,非常的細膩柔和,優美婉轉,而他的敘事曲則處處充滿了情節性的輾轉起伏,圓舞曲和波羅乃茲則充滿了華麗優雅莊重的旋律。

      二、《波羅乃茲舞曲》的起源

      最早的波羅乃茲是按照所寫的固定的詞句來作曲的,一般描寫古代波蘭英雄的體魄和豪邁情懷,歌頌偉大的騎士精神。波羅乃茲以其華麗的風格成為一種美麗、自信的音樂風格,李斯特曾稱波羅乃茲舞曲實際上是“一種漂亮,光榮,顯示聲勢的展覽會”。波羅乃茲舞曲是一種比較威武、莊嚴,具有貴族華麗氣息的三拍子的舞曲,以強拍開始,樂句大多結束在第三拍,速度是每分鐘96拍,通常為三部曲式。

      三、《升f小調波羅乃茲Op.44》作品分析

      肖邦《升f小調波羅乃茲Op.44》創作于1840--1841年間,呈獻給德?波渥公爵夫人。這首作品并沒有具體的標題,作品屬于戲劇性發生強烈碰撞的風格。戲劇性的突發力量以及音樂的緊張發展,在這部作品里都達到了前所未有的高度,并且在樂曲的中段插入了瑪祖卡舞曲,這是肖邦唯一一首將波羅乃茲和瑪祖卡兩種不同體裁的舞曲結合在一起創作的樂曲。這首樂曲具有深刻的戲劇性,李斯特曾評價說:“動力基本狂亂、不詳、好像是預兆颶風即將來臨,好像是聽到絕望的哀呼,狂叫,好像是從遠處戰場上傳來的隆隆的炮聲……”;第二段里,調性開始不斷變化,塑造出堅強有力的音樂形象,使人聯想到刀光劍影、激烈奮進的戰斗場面;而第三段則是用瑪祖卡節奏寫成的田園風光性質的樂曲,猶如戰斗的間歇,是對寧靜生活的向往與追求。全曲最終在悲劇性色彩中結束。

      《升f小調波羅乃茲舞曲》是雙重中部的復三部曲式,第一段升f小調轉降至b小調A大調;第二段第一中部升f小調、A大調,以A大調為中心調性不斷變化;第二中部為由瑪祖卡舞曲特征的中段;第四段再現第一段;最后是尾聲。

      四、《波羅乃茲舞曲》的演奏分析

      樂曲的1-8小節是引子,引入旋律,這個引子具有潛在性的激動不安的特點,第1小節是核心動機,第2小節擴大音程。從第5小節開始,八度的回旋旋律加大了沖擊力,把旋律推向頂峰。接下來是明顯的波羅乃茲節奏,音樂形象沉著、威武、雄壯,又帶點悲戚,在演奏時要注意旋律的走向,左右手的旋律聲部要突出,不能生硬死板,以免彈出進行曲的感覺;從17小節開始有兩條旋律線,一個是輪流到左手的主旋律,另一個是右手高音區的旋律,要彈得清晰,中間的和弦伴奏輕快且清晰,不能加重音;27小節樂曲開始轉調,旋律開始變得柔和。這時裝飾音要清晰且華麗,附點音符要掌握好節奏,注意八度演奏的整齊統一、干凈利落;61小節開始,音樂返回主旋律,但是在演奏上發生了變化,左手加入了音階,伴奏也增加了難度,基本都是八度的旋律伴奏;67-68小節有從右手轉左手的下行半音階,這段在演奏時要注意統一性、整體性,既要突出旋律,又要演奏出大氣磅礴的音樂形象。

      79小節開始是插部,一直到102小節32分音符的演奏,要注意均勻且整齊。由于音符的位置不好掌握,要多慢練,再逐漸加速,111-125小節同樣如此;127-261小節是對比中部,以瑪祖卡舞曲形式為體裁,旋律的歌唱性非常重要,與波羅乃茲舞曲部分形成了鮮明的對比,此處的練習要注意情感的運用和變化。

      262小節開始是主旋律的變化再現,氣氛變得更加莊嚴莊重,八度與和弦也明顯增多,力度開始增強,仿佛從夢境回到了現實,最后在悲壯的色彩中結束。這一段對于手指和手臂的力度要求非常高,彈起來也十分的累,因此建議多慢練,注意力度的變化,掌握好情感。

      五、結語

      肖邦這首曲子生動反應了其音樂創作特點,再現重復時越來越復雜,織體越來越多,和弦也具有旋律色彩,以及將音階、半音階都使用到作品中,使音樂形象越來越壯大。瑪祖卡與波羅乃茲的同時出現,既形成了對比,同時也展現了肖邦音樂作品的情感變化,具有雙重特點。

      參考文獻:

      [1]鄭培.肖邦“波洛涅茲舞曲”的民族精神[J].鋼琴藝術,1997(02).

      [2]廖乃雄.隱藏在花叢中的大炮―波蘭愛國音樂家肖邦作品簡介[M].北京:人民音樂出版社,1981.

      [3]周薇.西方鋼琴藝術史[M].上海:上海音樂出版社,2003.

      [4]胡千紅.肖邦鋼琴音樂的創作個性[J].鋼琴藝術,1999(04).

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