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    古代文學松柏題材和意向研究

    來源:萬方期刊網  時間:2018-04-11 16:00:06  點擊:

      摘要:松樹、柏樹是古老的樹種,在對松樹、柏樹長年栽培和利用的歷史實踐中,我們可以挖掘其中積淀的文明和文化內涵,研究中國松柏獨立而深厚的文化———松柏文化。底蘊厚重的松柏文化內容豐富,它融合于人們的生活之中和文學題材之中,成為中華民族理想人格的符號。在中國古代文學作品中,松柏題材和意象的文學作品不計其數,它們展示出了豐富的比德內涵、審美欣賞價值和文化底蘊,松柏文化在中國古代文學作品中的題材和意向值得我們對其審美特色和文化意蘊進行深入的研究。

      關鍵詞:中國古代文學;松柏文化;題材;意向;審美

      松樹和柏樹是植物的普通品種,但它們卻在中國古代文學作品中顯現出以小見大、因此及彼的特殊情懷,文人借助于松柏之樹寄托了某種理想,傳遞出某些思想,在反復的運用過程中,賦予了松柏以固定的情趣和人格的標志,松柏的意象代表著不懼嚴寒、四季常青、挺拔堅韌,文人作品之中大多借松柏“詠志”,[1]形成了具有高度認識意義和審美價值的作品,并蘊含了“比德觀”,即:自然物象之美,在于可以將比附之物比附于人們的某種道德操守,使自然屬性人格化。無論從松柏的題材,還是從松柏的意象而言,都具有極高的研究價值和意義。

      一、松柏的文化意蘊和典型意向分析

      松柏浸潤了古代文學家的情感和價值觀念,在古代文人的作品中賦予了多重的象征意義,在文學作品中,作者采用托物寓意、借景抒情的方式,表達了多重的意向和社會文化涵義,典型的意向可以有如下幾種:1.墓地松柏和文學表現追溯中國古代歷史,松柏是國君陵的專利,成了墳樹的別稱。在兩漢戰亂時期,文人用松柏意象傾訴出內心的悲情:“驅車上東門,遙望郭北墓。白楊何蕭蕭,松柏夾廣路。”再如古詩《十五從軍征》中,描述了老兵殘敗的家境:“家中有阿誰?”在松柏象征神靈福佑的文字中,被文人吟唱出生死懸隔的人生際遇慨嘆,代表了中華民族歷盡磨難后擺脫蒙昧而蘇醒的烙印,在現實的無奈之下,賦予松柏以豐富的生命意象,成為中國古代人文精神的重要旗幟。[1]2.澗底松意象和人格擬喻澗底松是中國古代詩人借以感遇詠懷的物象,在和情感層面顯現出新的格調,是古典文學作品中的重要意象。在前期的澗底松意象,主要是其堅貞剛勁的形象,如唐代王勃所作的《澗底寒松賦》中:“磊落殊狀,森梢峻節,紫葉吟風,蒼條振雪”;唐代闕名《幽松賦》中的“孤山曲澗之幽松”,在松柏澗底松意象之中,還有清高不俗、孤傲不群的品性,如唐代劉希夷所作的《孤松篇》中的南澗之松:“青青好顏色,落落任孤直。”由這些詩詞可知,澗底松的風骨可以歸結為孤高、貞堅、孤直、自強不息、窮且彌堅。到了宋代,澗底松的意象又獲得了新的發展,在文學作品中顯示出文人雅士用松柏寄托超曠淡泊之志,展示出文人雅士恬靜優雅之趣,在詩人黃庭堅的澗底松之作《次韻楊明叔見餞十首》中,有云:“松柏生澗壑,坐閱草木秋。金石在波中,仰看萬物流。”在這首詩作中,詩人將澗底松喻為閱世老人,在仰觀萬物之中,體察到盛衰之無常,窮通之有定,顯示出自我超越的淡然和通達。[2]總體來說,澗底松意象代表了文人對松柏的審美認識和道德評價,展示出在澗底松的生存狀態中的人生哲學,并具有相應的人格擬喻:寒門俊才、蟄伏之士、遷客逐臣、烈女貞婦等。3.老、怪松柏意象的象征意蘊松柏所獨有的蒼老、古怪之美也受到文人的關注,他們描述了松柏的逼真意象,具有文人雅士的真情真性,充實了自然審美價值觀。在漢樂府《艷歌行》中出現了南山老松的形象,之后文人體會和發現了古松、怪松的古老滄桑之美,他們將古松的丑陋、怪異也融入對松柏的審美之中,體現出以怪奇為美、以新異為美的審美新風尚。這些古老松柏的美感主要體現在:形體美、姿態美和神韻美等方面,如:宋代石延年所作的《古松》云:直氣森森恥屈盤,鐵衣生澀紫鱗干。還有明代高啟所作的《偃松行》中云:“長身蜿蜒橫數畝,巨石作枕相撐搘。……無心昂聳上霄漢,偃仰獨向荒山陲。”這些文學作品都給老松增添了古意和生意,并且具有象征性的文化意蘊和比德內涵,如:仙靈長壽、格調高古的君子人格。[3]4.復生、連理松柏意象的文學底蘊在中國古代文學作品中,也有一些不老松意向、連理松意向、復生松柏意向,它們都有其特定的民俗意蘊和內涵,具有深厚的文化價值。如,最早在《詩經•小雅•天保》之中,就將松柏作為祝壽的形式,有云:“如月之恒,如日之升。如松柏之茂,無不爾或承。”在這篇詩作之中,用松柏為君王祈福,祈祝君王長壽安康,子孫綿延,永享福祿,這可以視為不老松意向的文學起源。復生松柏在民俗觀念中,有死而復生之意,并在五代王仁裕的《開元天寶遺事》中有云:“明皇遭祿山之亂,鑾輿西幸,禁中枯松復生,……枯松再生,祥不誣矣。”連理松象征著忠貞不渝的愛情,在東漢干寶的《搜神記•韓憑妻》中的“相思樹”即兩棵枝干交相生長的連理木,表達了夫婦生死不離的忠誠愛情。[4]

      二、中國古代傳統文學藝術中的松柏文化題材和意向的發展

      松柏之所以能夠成為中國古代傳統文學藝術中的題材,是緣由它們特殊的風姿、力量和景致,在松柏這個特殊樹種中,文人創作了諸多文學作品,以松柏為文人的審美對象,運用比喻、象征、襯托的手法,賦予松柏以斑斕之文采,并在歷史發展的源遠流長之中,有其不同的階段:1.松柏文學的初始階段《詩經》是我國文學史上的第一部詩歌總集,在這部具有劃時代意義的文學作品中,便出現了詠頌松柏的詩文:“陟彼景山,松柏丸丸”“淇水滺滺,檜楫松舟”“山有喬松,隰有游龍”等,這些詩文都寄予了作者感應外界的朦朧意識,作為一種單純而質樸的文學形象,鮮明地展示在世人的面前。《楚辭》是一種新詩體,它用杜若對應松柏,以松柏作為比興,具有極為明顯的象征意味,也被賦予了一個品性純正、志向高潔的詩人自我形象。在南北朝時期,文學自覺地表達出強烈的社會性內容,如“建安七子”之一的劉楨,其借物抒情之作《贈從弟三首》中云“亭亭山上松,瑟瑟谷中風,風聲一何盛,松枝一何勁?”通過比興的手法,表現出抱負之士守志不阿的節操,體現出詩人“真骨凌霜,高風跨俗”的高潔情操,也成了松柏文學的重要標志。[5]2.松柏文學題材和意向作品的發展階段魏晉南北朝時期,松柏文學有了極大的發展,涌現出諸多文學詩作,如范云的《詠寒松》、李德林的《詠松樹詩》、隋煬帝楊廣的《北鄉古松樹詩》等,又如擁有充實內容文學作品的杰出詩人左思,他在《詠史》八首中云:“郁郁澗底松,離離山上苗。以彼徑寸莖,蔭此百尺條。……”這首詩以松柏起興,形象地揭示出古代門閥社會的不合理,并創造出“澗底松”的文學意象,在松柏文學中擁有重要價值并占據著重要地位。再如劉琨所作的具有寓言體特征的詩《扶風歌(艷歌行)》:“南山石嵬嵬,松柏何離離。……本自南山松,今為宮殿梁。”詩中以興起意,描繪出一顆高大的松樹被用作宮殿之梁,隱含有“物不得其位“的感慨,后來在后世作家的作品中,這個形象被逐漸豐滿而深刻,并最終形成了松柏文化中的“棟梁材”的意象。吳均也作有《贈王桂陽》一詩,用以表明自己的志向,詩中云:“松生數寸時,遂為草所沒。未見籠云心,誰知負霜骨。……何當數千尺,為君覆明月。”這首詩顯示出作者以松自擬的孤傲不平之氣,顯露出寒賤人士的雄心和骨氣,也流露出作者對壓制人才的辛辣諷刺和沉痛的詰問。還有在漢代興起的文體“賦”。在古代文學作品中,松柏文化中僅有的一位女作者是左九嬪,她所作的《松柏賦》對松柏的生長環境及“長風鳴條”之聲,極盡贊美,寫了松柏的細膩之情趣,顯示出松柏文學作品中的又一番天地。[6]3.松柏文學題材和意向作品的繁榮階段隋唐是統一王朝,為松柏文學作品帶來了空前的繁榮,遼闊的疆域推動了文學藝術作品的發展,引領松柏文學走向了全面繁榮的巔峰,在有意無意之間可以看到諸多“松柏”的身影。如王績所作的《古意六首其四》,詩中云:“松生北崖下,由來人徑絕。……寧關匠石顧,豈為王孫折,盛衰自有時,圣賢未嘗屑。”還有李嶠所作的《松》:“郁郁高崖表,森森幽澗陲。……歲寒終不改,勁節幸君知。”上述這些詩作流露出作者以天下為己任,渴望得到明君賞識而建功立業的心情,表達出蓬勃、進取的昂揚精神和狀態。在盛唐時代,出現了許多激蕩人心的豪邁之作,松柏文化顯示出豐富多姿的景象。盛唐時代的王維在《新秦郡松樹歌》中,用自己的眷愛之情關注自然中的景物,松柏之物成了情感化的內容,如:“青青山上松,數里不見今更蓬。……為君顏色高且閑,亭亭迥出浮云間。”還有“軟草承趺坐,長松響梵聲。”顯示出松柏的佛家意味。唐代偉大的浪漫主義詩人李白所作的《贈韋侍御黃裳二首其一》詩中,以松言志,流露出作者的不同流俗和高風峻節,這位“謫仙人”將松柏的高潔品性張揚到了極致,有詩作證:“為草當作蘭,為木當作松。蘭幽香風遠,松寒不改容。”“清泉映疏松,不知幾千古?”“南窗蕭颯松聲起,憑崖一聽清心耳。”“時游敬亭上,閑聽松風眠。”……可見,“詩仙”李白的風度和氣質可以用“松風”的意象加以彰顯和表達。白居易所作的《澗底松》是唐代松柏文化的突出的代表,他通過對松柏的贊頌,表達出自己的價值觀念,在松柏的品格之中解讀自己的精神和思想。如:“小松未盈尺,心愛手自移。蒼然澗底色,云濕煙霏霏。”

      三、結束語

      總之,松柏的題材和意向豐富,在中國古代文學作品中,具有不同的文化底蘊和情感內涵,如墓地松柏、不老松、連理松等,它們顯示出生動的民俗文化心理,表達了不同的人格品質。

      參考文獻:

      [1]賈軍.植物意象研究[D].哈爾濱:東北林業大學,2011.

      [2]李杰玲.山與中國詩學[D].上海:上海師范大學,2012.

      [3]白帥敏.唐宋詞聲音意象研究[D].蘇州:蘇州大學,2012.

      [4]石中華.作者身份與中國古代文學活動[D].武漢:華中師范大學,2012.

      [5]廖啟明.清初唐宋詩之爭研究[D].南京:南京大學,2013.

      [6]李飛.中國古代林業文獻述要[D].北京:北京林業大學,2010.

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