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    您的位置:首頁 > 萬方期刊網 > 論文分類> 淺談文學作品“意象”和“意境”的理解

    淺談文學作品“意象”和“意境”的理解

    來源:萬方期刊網  時間:2018-04-16 10:23:24  點擊:

      甘肅省蘭州市城關區靜寧路小學 730030

      意象和意境兩個概念,在閱讀有關抒情文學作品的評論時,常常可以見到,對于讀者來說,平時也并不怎么在意對它們的理解,或許很多人在潛意識中覺得多多少少還是懂得的,但真要說一說什么是意象,什么是意境,對于一些讀者而言,卻未必能說得清楚。然而,理解把握這兩個概念,對于閱讀和理解抒情文學作品,具有非常重要的意義。

      一、什么是意象

      意:主觀的情感。象:客觀的各種事物。意和象有機結合構成意象——表達主觀情感的各種客觀事物的復合體(“意的寄托物”)。

      美國詩人龐德在《意象主義者的幾個“不”》中給意象下定義:“意象是一剎那間思想和感情的復合體。”可見,意象不是一般的具體事物,而是主、客觀融為一體的形象——意象就是寓“意”之“象”,單純的客觀事物還不能稱之為意象,只有用來寄托主觀情思的客觀物象才能稱為意象。

      二、什么是意境

      意境是意象的有機結合所形成的一種境界。“意境是我國抒情文學創作傳統中錘煉出來的審美范疇,其理論在我國傳統文論中源源流長。它側重于表現的抒情文學,其主要成分是情思。”(童慶炳主編《文學概論》 )

      簡而言之:“所謂意境是指抒情作品中和諧廣闊的自然和生活圖景,滲透著作者含蓄豐富的情思而形成的能誘發讀者想象和思索的藝術境界。”(童慶炳主編《文學概論》)

      可以理解為意境是由意象疊加形成的意象組合,是由人的心理活動組成包含新的意蘊(能誘發讀者想象和思索)的特殊結構,是環境(和諧廣闊的自然和生活圖景)和感情的結合體。

      舉個例子說說意境的構成。在馬致遠的《秋思》中有“枯藤老樹昏鴉,小橋流水人家”的詩句,枯藤、老樹、昏鴉,小橋、流水、人家,這些事物每一種都是詩中單一的意象,其中任何一個圖景,都只是意象,這些意象和后面的“古道西風瘦馬,夕陽西下”,再加上個天涯孤旅的“斷腸人”,作者把這些意象通過心理活動滲透進自己的情感,再把它們有機地組合起來,就形成了景中有情,情景交融的某種境界和情調——即意境。

      三、怎樣理解文學作品的意象和意境

      知道了意象和意境的構成,那么作為讀者,怎樣理解作品的意象和意境呢?讓我們把白樸的《天凈沙·秋》與馬致遠的《天凈沙·秋思》的意象和意境作個簡單的對比,來說明這個問題。先看前兩句:

      孤村落日殘霞,輕煙老樹寒鴉。

      枯藤老樹昏鴉,小橋流水人家。

      兩首小令前兩句都是六個單一意象的疊加,大致都是孤村秋色圖,單純從意象上講,沒有太大的區別。

      而后面的環境呢?前者是“古道西風瘦馬,夕陽西下,斷腸人在天涯”,后者是“一點飛鴻影下,青山綠水,白草紅葉黃花”。相由心生,能夠寄托“斷腸人”的感情色彩和天涯孤旅悲涼心境的眼中的“象”,也只有“枯、老、昏”和凜冽西風、日薄西山這些滿含蒼涼和肅殺的事物了。而同樣是孤村、老樹、殘陽大背景下的白樸,滿懷的是寄情山水的愉悅之情,他所看到和感受到的則是飛鴻影下人的驚奇,“青綠白紅黃”的明麗和絢爛。

      可以推測,在“斷腸人”的眼中,未必沒有青山綠水,白草紅葉黃花,同樣的,在白樸的眼中,也未必沒有枯藤、老樹、寒鴉。同樣是煙村人家,同樣是落日殘霞,也是同樣的青山綠水,紅葉黃花,但兩首小令的作者卻選擇了不同的“象”用來寄托自己的主觀情思——“意”,從而組成了不同的意象,又因為各自心理活動和感情色彩的不同,造成不一樣的意象疊加,便產生了不一樣的韻味和情思,從而造就出兩首小令不一樣的意境。

      注意到了,白樸的小令,以“秋”為題,馬致遠的小令以“秋思”為題,似乎前者重在寫景,而后者重在抒情,但其實不是。王國維先生在他的《人間詞話》里寫道:“昔人論詩,有景語情語之別,不知一切景語皆情語。”從意境的角度講,所寫之景(意象)是作者表情寄意的載體,必然誘發作者的情感波動,為表達情感服務。所以景語實則情語也,情與景是難舍難分的。

      可見,在閱讀和理解文學作品的意境時,應該明確,作品中客觀的“象”在寄托了作者和讀者主觀的情思 “意”之后,就形成意象,又因為作者和讀者心理活動和感情色彩的不同,會對這些意象進行不一樣的疊加,便各自產生了不一樣的韻味和情思,從而感受到不一樣的意境。

      如果注意到前文中在描述意境時的“情思”“心理活動”“感情結合體”“景語皆情語”這些詞語,就不難看出,要準確地把握作品意境,需要的不只是感知,更重要的應該是感悟,要透過“象”見出其中之“意”,透過“境”悟出情,進而把握其中的“意蘊”和“情思”,甚至于宇宙人生的無限意味。

      明白怎樣理解文學作品意象和意境的問題,對讀者而言非常有益。我們在閱讀作品時,如果能很好地把握作品的意象和意境,并根據作品的意象和意境在內心對作品進行二次甚至多次再創作,不僅在一定程度上可以還原作者所見所感所思,深入體會作品的韻味和情思,還可以在理解作者情思的基礎上,主動融入自己的感情色彩,或許能從作品中感受到埋藏于自己內心深處的一縷縷溫暖的情愫和人生無盡的意味。

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